Burgess Shale … While the bitumen portion of oil shales is soluble in carbon disulfide, kerogen portion is insoluble in carbon disulfide and may contain iron, vanadium, nickel, molybdenum, and uranium. [42], The global oil-shale industry began to revive at the beginning of the 21st century. Following the 1973 oil crisis, world production of oil shale reached a peak of 46 million tonnes in 1980 before falling to about 16 million tonnes in 2000, due to competition from cheap conventional petroleum in the 1980s. Our new online dictionaries for schools provide a safe and appropriate environment for children. shale definition: 1. a type of soft, grey rock, usually formed from clay that has become hard, that breaks easily…. sedimentary rock - rock formed from consolidated clay sediments. [17][19] Some deposits contain significant fossils; Germany's Messel Pit has the status of a Unesco World Heritage Site. It is an ‘International Day’ established by the United Nations to recognize and promote the contribution made by volunteers and voluntary organizations to the wellbeing of people across the globe. [86], Water concerns are sensitive issues in arid regions, such as the western US and Israel's Negev Desert, where plans exist to expand oil-shale extraction despite a water shortage. Shale oil serves best for producing middle-distillates such as kerosene, jet fuel, and diesel fuel. [87] Depending on technology, above-ground retorting uses between one and five barrels of water per barrel of produced shale-oil. [72] A 2004 report by the United States Department of Energy stated that both the Shell technology and technology used in the Stuart Oil Shale Project could be competitive at prices above $25 per barrel, and that the Viru Keemia Grupp expected full-scale production to be economical at prices above $18 per barrel ($130/m3). Other countries, such as Egypt, have also had plans to construct power plants fired by oil shale, while Canada and Turkey plan to burn oil shale along with coal for power generation. [6][24], On 2 May 1982, known in some circles as "Black Sunday", Exxon canceled its US$5 billion Colony Shale Oil Project near Parachute, Colorado because of low oil-prices and increased expenses, laying off more than 2,000 workers and leaving a trail of home-foreclosures and small-business bankruptcies. A fine-grained sedimentary rock of a thin, laminated, and often friable, structure. The water needed in the oil shale retorting process offers an additional economic consideration: this may pose a problem in areas with water scarcity. It cited a conversion ratio of 650 liters (170 U.S. gal; 140 imp gal) of oil per one ton of coal, as against 150 liters (40 U.S. gal; 33 imp gal) of shale oil per one ton of oil shale. Operations during the 19th century focused on the production of kerosene, lamp oil, and paraffin; these products helped supply the growing demand for lighting that arose during the Industrial Revolution. "Resources" refers to all oil shale deposits, while "reserves", represents those deposits from which producers can extract oil shale economically using existing technology. According to a survey conducted by the RAND Corporation, the cost of producing a barrel of oil at a surface retorting complex in the United States (comprising a mine, retorting plant, upgrading plant, supporting utilities, and spent shale reclamation), would range between US$70–95 ($440–600/m3, adjusted to 2005 values). In one result, Queensland Energy Resources put the proposed Stuart Oil Shale Project in Australia on hold in 2004. A 1984 study estimated the EROEI of the various known oil-shale deposits as varying between 0.7–13.3[79] Conjugation Documents Grammar Dictionary Expressio. Combustion and thermal processing generate waste material. Wordfinder. [57][88][89][90] A 2008 programmatic environmental impact statement issued by the US Bureau of Land Management stated that surface mining and retort operations produce 2 to 10 U.S. gallons (7.6 to 37.9 l; 1.7 to 8.3 imp gal) of waste water per 1 short ton (0.91 t) of processed oil shale. "[12] Their common defining feature is low solubility in low-boiling organic solvents and generation of liquid organic products on thermal decomposition. The water contaminants commonly associated with oil shale occur around the … definition of shale oil noun... Sign up Now and start using at Home or in the United States 68 Above-ground. Cracks ( = narrow openings ) and modified in-situ processes ( MIS ) continuously... [ 16 ] oil shale, researchers have proposed and tested several co-pyrolysis processes processes ( TIS and... /ˈShāl ˌoil/ /ˈʃeɪl ˌɔɪl/ see synonyms for shale oil less of the 21st century features with our free.... 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